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===Saolin harcművészete===
[[Fájl:Shaolin-wushu.jpg|thumb|balra|200px|FalfestmányFalfestmény a [[Saolin kolostor]]ból, a 19. század elejéről: Saolin szerzetesek harcművészeti bemutatója]]
{{bővebben|Saolin kolostor}}
 
 
A [[Ming-dinasztia|kései Ming-kori]] irodalomban számos utalást találni a Saolinok harcművészetérere szerzetesek sírfeliratain, kézikönyvekben, katonai enciklopédiákban, útileírásokban, versekben és prózai művekben egyaránt. Ezek egyikse sem utal azonban specifikus Saolin-stílusra.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Shahar|first=Meir|year=2001|month=December|date=|title=Ming-Period Evidence of Shaolin Martial Practice|journal=Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies|value=61|issue=2|pages=359–413|id={{ISSN|0073-0548}}|doi=10.2307/3558572|volume=61|publisher=Harvard-Yenching Institute|jstor=3558572}}</ref> A fegyveres Saolin küzdelemről szó esik azonban, például a [[kun (bot)|bot]] (''gùn'', kantoniul ''gwan'') használatáról, {{kínai|[[Qi Jiguang]]|[[Csi Csu-kuang]]}} tábornok 紀效新書 ({{kínai|Ji Xiao Xin Shu|Csi Hsziao Hszin Su}}, „Hatásos technikák új könyve”) című művében. A tábornok a bot használata mellett leírta a 少林拳法 ({{kínai|Shào Lín Quán Fǎ|Saolin Csüan Fa}}, „Saolin Ökölszabályok”) technikáját is. A könyv nagy hatással volt a harcművészetek fejlődésére [[Okinava-sziget|Okinava]] szigetén<ref>{{cite book|last=[[Yamamoto Kansuke|Kansuke]]|first=[[Yamamoto Kansuke|Yamamoto]]|year=1994|title=Heiho Okugisho: The Secret of High Strategy|publisher=W.M. Hawley|isbn=0-910704-92-9}}</ref> és Koreában is.<ref>{{cite book|last=Kim |first=Sang H.|year=2001|month=January|title=[[Muye Dobo Tongji|Muyedobotongji]]: The Comprehensive Illustrated Manual of Martial Arts of Ancient Korea|publisher=Turtle Press |isbn=978-1880336533}}</ref>
 
===A modern kor harcművészete===
A 20. században drasztikus változások következtek be a kínai történelemben és társadalomban, és ezek a harcművészetek gyakorlására és népszerűségére is hatással voltak.
 
A [[Csing-dinasztia]] bukását követő időszakban, a [[Második kínai–japán háború|japán megszállás]] és a [[kínai polgárháború]] alatt a harcművészet többek számára elérhetővé vált, mivel a véres események arra késztették a mestereket, hogy nyíltan tanítani kezdjenek. Többen úgy gondolták, a hagyományos harcművészetek oktatása elengedhetetlen a nemzeti büszkeség fenntartásához és egy erős nemzet felépítéséhez. Ennek eredményeképp kézikönyveket (拳谱, {{kínai|quán pǔ|csüan pu}}) publikáltak, létrejött egy gyakorlóakadémia, nemzeti memérettetéseket rendeztek és bemutatócsoportokat küldtek külföldre.<ref name="Kennedy">{{cite book|last=Kennedy|first=Brian|coauthors=Elizabeth Guo|month=November|date=2005-11-11|title=Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey|publisher=North Atlantic Books|isbn=1-55643-557-6}}</ref> Szerte Kínában és a tengeren túli kínai közösségekben is harcművészeti egyesületek alakultak. Többek között az 1928-ban létrehozott Központi Kuosu Akadémia (中央國術館/中央国术馆, {{kínai|Zhōngyāng guóshù guǎn|Csungjang kuosu kuan}}), valamint {{kínai|[[Huo Yuan Jia]]|[[Huo Jüan-csia]]}} 1910-ben alapított {{kínai|Jing Wu|Csing Vu}} Egyesülete is azért alakult, hogy a kínai harcművészeteket intézményesített formában oktassa és népszerűsítse.<ref>{{cite conference|first=Andrew|last=Morris|year=2000|title = National Skills: Guoshu Martial arts and the Nanjing State, 1928–1937|conference=2000 AAS Annual Meeting, March 9–12, 2000|conferenceurl=http://www.aasianst.org/absts/2000abst/wrld-toc.htm|location=San Diego, CA, USA|url=http://www.aasianst.org/absts/2000abst/China/C-6.htm|accessdate=2008-06-04}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|first=Susan|last=Brownell|month=August|date=1995-08-01|title=Training the Body for China: sports in the moral order of the people's republic|publisher=University of Chicago Press|isbn=0-226-07646-6}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|first=J. A.|last=Mangan|coauthors=Fan Hong|year=2003|month=September|date=2002-09-29|title=Sport in Asian Society: Past and Present|publisher=UK: Routledge|pages=244|isbn=0-7146-5342-X}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Morris|first=Andrew|month=September|date=2004-09-13|title=Marrow of the Nation: A History of Sport and Physical Culture in Republican China|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=0-520-24084-7}}</ref> 1932-től tartományi és országos versenyeket rendeztek a harcművészetek népszerűsítésére. Az 1936-os [[1936. évi nyári olimpiai játékok|berlini olimpián]] kínai harcművészek először tartottak bemutatót nemzetközi közönség előtt.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Q1Crc1bO9xgC&lpg=PA45&ots=CyATTv_gRH&dq=chinese%20martial%20art%20demonstration%20berlin%20olympics%201936&pg=PA45#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Olympic dreams: China and sports, 1895-2008|last=Xu|first=Guoqi|pages=45|publisher=Harvard University Press|year=2008|isbn=978-0-674-02840-1}}</ref> A kormány bevezette a ''{{kínai|guoshu|kuosu}}'' (國術) fogalmát, melynek jelentése „nemzeti művészet”. A ''{{kínai|guoshu|kuosu}}'' sok más sportág mellett a harcművészetet is magába foglalta és rendszert próbált vinni a harcművészetekbe is, versenyszabályok felállításával.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=8ZG1tmt7nmkC&lpg=PA26&dq=Guoshu&pg=PA24#v=onepage&q=Guoshu&f=false|title=Reconstructing the Indigenous Physical Culture in China|publisher=Journal of Chinese Martial Studies|pages=24-31|year=2009|accessdate=2011-9-30}}</ref>
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====People's Republic====
{{see|Wushu (sport)|International Wushu Federation}}
 
Chinese martial arts experienced rapid international dissemination with the end of the [[Chinese Civil War]] and the founding of the [[People's Republic of China]] on October 1, 1949. Many well known martial artists chose to escape from the PRC's rule and migrate to [[Taiwan]], [[Hong Kong]],<ref>Amos, Daniel Miles (1983) "Marginality and the Hero's Art: Martial artists in Hong Kong and Guangzhou (Canton)", University of California at Los Angeles (US), July 1984, UM 8408765</ref> and other parts of the world. Those [[sifu|masters]] started to teach within the [[overseas Chinese]] communities but eventually they expanded their teachings to include people from other ethnic groups.
 
Within China, the practice of traditional martial arts was discouraged during the turbulent years of the [[Chinese Cultural Revolution]] (1969–1976).<ref name="Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan">{{cite book|last=Fu|first=Zhongwen|title=Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan|month=May|date=2006-05-09|publisher=Blue Snake Books|location=Berkeley, California|isbn=1-58394-152-5 (trade paper)|others=Louis Swaine}}</ref> Like many other aspects of traditional Chinese life, martial arts were subjected to a radical transformation by the [[People's Republic of China]] in order to align them with [[Maoist]] revolutionary doctrine.<ref name="Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan"/> The [[People's Republic of China|PRC]] promoted the committee-regulated sport of [[Wushu (sport)|Wushu]] as a replacement to independent schools of martial arts. This new competition sport was disassociated from what was seen as the potentially [[subversive]] self-defense aspects and family lineages of Chinese martial arts.<ref name="Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan"/>
 
In 1958, the government established the All-China Wushu Association as an umbrella organization to regulate martial arts training. The Chinese State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports took the lead in creating standardized forms for most of the major arts. During this period, a national Wushu system that included standard forms, teaching curriculum, and instructor grading was established. Wushu was introduced at both the high school and university level. The suppression of traditional teaching was relaxed during the [[History of the People's Republic of China (1976–1989)|Era of Reconstruction (1976–1989)]], as Communist ideology became more accommodating to alternative viewpoints.<ref>{{cite book|last=Kraus|first=Richard Curt|month=April|date=2004-04-28|title=The Party and the Arty in China: The New Politics of Culture (State and Society in East Asia)|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.|pages=29|isbn=0-742-52720-4}}</ref> In 1979, the State Commission for Physical Culture and Sports created a special task force to reevaluate the teaching and practice of Wushu.
In 1986, the Chinese National Research Institute of Wushu was established as the central authority for the research and administration of Wushu activities in the People's Republic of China.<ref>{{cite book|first=Wu|last=Bin|coauthors=Li Xingdong and Yu Gongbao|month=January|date=1995-01-01|title=Essentials of Chinese Wushu|isbn=7-119-01477-3|publisher=Foreign Languages Press|location=Beijing|unused_data=видавництво=Beijin:Foreign Languages Press; New Ed edition}}</ref>
 
Changing government policies and attitudes towards sports in general lead to the closing of the [[State Sports Commission]] (the central sports authority) in 1998. This closure is viewed as an attempt to partially de-politicize organized sports and move Chinese sport policies towards a more [[market]]-driven approach.<ref>{{cite book|last=Riordan|first=Jim|month=September|date=1999-09-14|title=Sport and Physical Education in China|publisher=Spon Press (UK)|isbn=0-419-24750-5}} p.15</ref> As a result of these changing sociological factors within China, both traditional styles and modern Wushu approaches are being promoted by the Chinese government.<ref>[http://www.iwuf.org/Meetings/8thCongress/minutes.htm Minutes of the 8th IWUF Congress], International Wushu Federation, December 9, 2005 (accessed 01/2007)</ref>
 
Chinese martial arts are an integral element of 20th-century Chinese popular culture.<ref>{{cite conference | first = Wei | last = Zhang | coauthors = Tan Xiujun | title = Wushu | booktitle = Handbook of Chinese Popular Culture | pages = 155–168 | publisher = Greenwood Publishing Group | year = 1994 | id = 9780313278082}}</ref>
[[Wuxia]] or "martial arts fiction" is a popular genre which emerged in the early 20th century and peaked in popularity during the 1960s to 1980s. [[Wuxia films]] were produced from the 1920s. The Kuonmintang suppressed wuxia, accusing it of promoting superstition and violent anarchy. Because of this, wuxia came to flourish in [[British Hong Kong]], and the genre of [[kung fu movie]] in [[Hong Kong action cinema]] became wildly popular, coming to international attention from the 1970s.
The genre declinded somewhat during the 1980s, and in the late 1980s the [[Hong Kong film industry]] underwent a drastic decline, even before Hong Kong was handed to the People's Republic in 1997.
In the wake of ''[[Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon]]'' (2000), there has been somewhat of a revival of Chinese-produced wuxia films aimed at an international audience, including ''[[Hero (2002 film)|Hero]]'' (2002), ''[[House of Flying Daggers]]'' (2004) and ''[[Reign of Assassins]]'' (2010).-->
 
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