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== Jellemzői ==
A teremint 1919-ben találta fel [[Léon Theremin]] (eredetileg: Lev Szergejevics Tyermen, Лев Сергеевич Термен) orosz fizikus. Egyedi volt abban a tekintetben, hogy ez volt az első olyan hangszer, amit pusztán gesztusokkal lehetett megszólaltatni, anélkül, hogy a zenész magát a hangszert megérintette volna.
Más hangszerek, például az [[Ondes-Martenot]] hasonló elven működnek, de annál a hangszer billentyűzetét meg kell érinteni a hang előállításához.
== További információk ==
<!--== Története ==
The theremin was originally the product of Russian government-sponsored research into proximity sensors. The instrument was invented by a young Russian physicist named Lev Sergeivich Termen (known in the West as [[Léon Theremin]]) in 1919, after the outbreak of the [[Russian civil war]]. After positive reviews at [[Moscow]] [[electronics]] conferences, Theremin demonstrated the device to [[Bolshevik]] leader [[Vladimir Lenin]]. Lenin was so impressed with the device that he began taking lessons in playing it<ref>[http://www2.unt.se/avd/1,1786,MC=5-AV_ID=629334,00.html UNT: Strupsång, theremin och vägen inåt]</ref>, commissioned 600 of the instruments for distribution throughout the Soviet Union, and sent Theremin on a trip around the world to demonstrate the latest Soviet technology and the invention of [[electronic music]]. After a lengthy tour of [[Europe]], during which time he demonstrated his invention to packed houses, Theremin found his way to [[United States|America]], where he patented his invention in 1928 ({{US patent|1661058|US1661058}}). Subsequently, Theremin granted commercial production rights to [[RCA]].
Although the RCA Thereminvox, released immediately following the [[Wall Street Crash of 1929|Stock Market Crash of 1929]], was not a commercial success, it fascinated audiences in America and abroad. [[Clara Rockmore]], a well-known thereminist, toured to wide acclaim, performing a classical repertoire in concert halls around the United States, often sharing the bill with [[Paul Robeson]]. In 1938, Theremin left the United States, though the circumstances related to his departure are in dispute. Many accounts claim he was taken from his [[New York City]] apartment by Soviet agents, returned to the [[Soviet Union|USSR]] and made to work in a ''[[sharashka]]''. However, Albert Glinsky's 2000 biography ''Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage'' suggests he fled to escape crushing personal debts, and was subsequently caught up in Stalin's political purges. In any case, Theremin did not return to the United States until 1991. [http://moogmusic.com/history.php?cat_id=2]
After a flurry of interest in America following the end of the [[World War II|Second World War]], the theremin soon fell into disuse with serious musicians, mainly because newer electronic instruments were introduced that were easier to play. However, a niche interest in the theremin persisted, mostly among electronics enthusiasts and kit-building hobbyists. One of these electronics enthusiasts, [[Robert Moog]], began building theremins in the 1950s, while he was a high-school student. Moog subsequently published a number of articles about building theremins, and sold theremin kits which were intended to be assembled by the customer. Moog credited what he learned from the experience as leading directly to his groundbreaking [[synthesizer]], the [[Minimoog]].
Since the release of the film ''[[Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey]]'' in 1994 (one year after the death of Léon Theremin), the instrument has enjoyed a resurgence in interest and has become more widely used by contemporary musicians. Even though many theremin sounds can be approximated on many modern synthesizers, some musicians continue to appreciate the expressiveness, novelty and uniqueness of using an actual theremin. The film itself has gathered excellent reviews. [http://www.mrqe.com/lookup?Theremin]
Today [[Moog Music]] and Wavefront Technologies manufacture performance-quality theremins. Theremin kit building remains popular with electronics buffs; kits are available from Moog Music, Theremaniacs and [[PAiA Electronics]]. Rare antique RCA theremins continue to be in demand, fetching tens of thousands of dollars at auction. {{Fact|date=June 2007}}-->
<!--== Operating principles ==
The theremin is unique among musical instruments in that it is performed without being physically manipulated by the operator. The musician stands in front of the instrument and moves his or her hands in the proximity of two metal [[antenna (radio)|antennas]]. The distance from one antenna determines [[frequency]] (pitch), and the distance from the other controls [[amplitude]] ([[loudness|volume]]). Typically the right hand controls the pitch and the left controls the volume, although some performers reverse this arrangement. Additionally, some newer theremin use a volume dial and have only one antenna.
The theremin uses the [[heterodyne]] principle to generate an audio signal. The instrument's circuitry includes two [[radio frequency]] [[Oscillation|oscillators]]. One oscillator operates at a fixed frequency. The other is a variable frequency oscillator, the frequency of which is controlled by performer's distance from the frequency control antenna. The performer's hand acts as the [[Ground (electricity)|grounded]] plate (the performer's body being the connection to ground) of a [[variable capacitor]] in an L-C (inductance-capacitance) circuit. The difference between the frequencies of the two oscillators at each moment generates a [[beat frequency]] in the [[audio frequency]] range, resulting in audio [[Signal (electrical engineering)|signal]]s that are [[amplifier|amplified]] and sent to a [[loudspeaker]].
To control volume, the performer's hand acts as the grounded plate of another variable capacitor. In this case, though, the variable capacitor takes the place of the [[Potentiometer#Potentiometer as electronic component|variable resistor]] that is usually used to control the volume of [[audio equipment]]. The distance between the performer's hand and the volume control antenna determines the capacitor's value, which regulates the theremin's volume.
== Performance technique ==
Easy to learn but notoriously difficult to master, theremin performance presents two challenges: reliable control of the instrument's pitch with no physical guidance (no keys, valves, frets, or fingerboard positions), and minimizing undesired [[portamento]] that is inherent in the instrument's [[Microtonal music|microtonal]] design.
Pitch control is challenging because, unlike most musical instruments, the theremin generates tones of any pitch throughout its entire range, including those that lie between the conventional notes. While some other instruments share this feature, particularly the stringed instruments, those instruments use several (typically four) separate strings to express the instrument's full range of pitches, and positions on the fingerboard corresponding to specific notes become familiar to performers. In the case of the theremin, the entire range of pitches is controlled by the distance of the performer's hand to the pitch antenna in mid-air, and over relatively short range of distances. Very precise control of hand position coupled with an excellent sense of pitch is required.
[[Fájl:Carolina Eyck Portrait.jpg|bélyegkép|200px|balra|Carolina Eyck<br />Thereminist]]
Also, the theremin's continuous range of pitches lends itself to [[glissando]] playing, which is often inappropriate to the piece being performed. Skilled performers, through rapid and exact hand movements, minimize undesired portamento and glissando to play individual notes and can even achieve [[staccato]] effects. Small and rapid movements of the hands can create [[Tremolo (zenei fogalom)|tremolo]] or [[vibrato]] effects.
Although pitch is governed primarily by the distance of the performer's hand to the pitch antenna, most precision thereminists augment their playing techniques with a system called "aerial fingering", largely devised by [[Clara Rockmore]] and subsequently extended by [[Lydia Kavina]]. It employs specific hand and finger positions to alter slightly the amount of capacitance relative to the pitch antenna to produce small changes in tone quickly and in a manner that can be reliably recreated.
An alternate and controversial "hands on" technique is called "angling" in which the pitch control hand is actually set on the top of the theremin which violates the "no touch" creed of traditionalists. It employs changing the angle of the hand and fingers to alter the pitch and repositioning the hand if the pitch interval is too large for "angling". By touching the instrument, the effect on pitch of extraneous body movement is dampened. This permits the use of steady pitches without vibrato and without remaining perfectly still.
Equally important in theremin articulation is the use of the volume control antenna. Unlike touched instruments, where simply halting play or damping a resonator silences the instrument, the thereminist must "play the rests, as well as the notes", as Ms. Rockmore observes. [http://www.thereminvox.com/article/articleview/21/1/22/] Although volume technique is less developed than pitch technique, some thereminists have worked to extend it, especially [[Pamelia Kurstin]]'s "[[walking bass]]" technique.
Skilled players who overcome these challenges by a precisely controlled combination of movements can achieve complex and expressive performances, and thus realize the theremin's musical potential.
Some thereminists in the [[avant-garde]] openly rebel against developing any formalized technique, viewing it as imposing traditional limitations on an instrument that is inherently free form. These players choose to develop their own highly personalized techniques. The question of the relative value of formal technique versus free form performances is hotly debated among thereminists. Theremin artist Anthony Ptak uses antenna [[interference]] in live performance.
== The theremin in use ==
=== In art music ===
The theremin is a popular instrument among [[avant-garde]] and [[new music]] artists because of its perceived freedom from traditional compositional strictures. It is also performed as a classical instrument, and is occasionally used in jazz improvisation. Classical composers who have written for theremin include [[Bohuslav Martinů]], [[Dmitri Shostakovich]], [[Percy Grainger]], [[Christian Wolff (composer)|Christian Wolff]], Mortimer Browning, Anis Fuleihan, [[Joseph Schillinger]], David Simons, Mark Steven Brooks, Olga Bochihina, Caspar Johannes Walter, [[Alan Hovaness]], [[Edgar Varese]], Nicolaus Richter de Vroe, Michael Hirsch, Juliane Klein, Vladimir Nikolaev, Moritz Eggert, Iraida Yusupova, Robert C. Ehle, John Haussermann, Friedrich Wilckens, Isidor Achron, Jorge Antunes, Vladimir Komarov, and [[Dalit Warshaw]].
A recent classical composition utilizing the Theremin is [[Lera Auerbach]]'s ballet ''[[The Little Mermaid]]'', a 3 hour production featuring the theremin as the mermaid's voice throughout. The Royal Danish Ballet commissioned Russian American composer Lera Auerbach to create a modern rendition of this fairy tale. It premiered on April 15, 2005 with [[Lydia Kavina]] as the theremin soloist.
[[Dalit Warshaw]], a student of [[Clara Rockmore]], is a composer, pianist and thereminist who has performed on the instrument with such ensembles as the [[New York Philharmonic]] and the [[Royal Stockholm Philharmonic]], among others. Works written for theremin by [[Dalit Warshaw]] have been performed at [[Lincoln Center]], [[Steinway Hall]] and at the LA Philharmonic's [[Disney Hall]].
Russian thereminist and composer [[Lydia Kavina]] is widely regarded as the greatest living theremin [[virtuoso]]. She is the niece of one of Léon Theremin's first-degree cousins. Kavina was Theremin's protégé. Her repertoire consists primarily of classical and neo-classical compositions, many of which were written for the instrument. Many thereminists have studied under Ms. Kavina, including German thereminists [[Barbara Buchholz]] and Carolina Eyck, English thereminists [[Bruce Woolley]] Miss Hypnotique, and Japanese thereminist Masami Takeuchi.
[[Pamelia Kurstin]] is a thereminist whose eclectic styles and innovations continue to expand the instrument's range. She performs solo in the classical and jazz idioms, as well as in ethnic and avant-rock music with the band Barbez.
[[Armen Ra]] specializes in performing ethnic Armenian music. Other performers of note include American jazz thereminist [[Eric Ross]], Canadian Peter Pringle, and Eri Ii of Japan. UK based Beatrix Ward-Fernandez is a young improviser.
=== In popular music ===
[[Fájl:Moog Theremin Bausatz.jpg|bélyegkép|A modern [[Moog Music|Moog]] theremin]]
Theremin sounds have been incorporated into many [[popular music]] songs from the 1960s through the present.
Theremins have also been used in live concerts and in the studio by artists such as [[Street Drum Corps]], [[Olivia Tremor Control]], [[Phish]], [[Pixies]], [[The Flaming Lips]], [[TriPod the band|Tripod]], [[The Octopus Project]], [[Chris Funk]] ([[The Decemberists]]), [[The Polyphonic Spree]], [[Fishbone]], [[Jean Michel Jarre]], [[Jon Spencer Blues Explosion]], [[Charlie Clouser]] ([[Nine Inch Nails]]), [[Natalie Naveira]] ([[Lendi Vexer]]), [[Bill Bailey]], [[Nikki Sixx]], [[Pere Ubu (band)|Pere Ubu]], [[Keller Williams]], [[One Ring Zero]], [[The Damned]] (by [[Dave Vanian]]), [[Gandalf Murphy and the Slambovian Circus of Dreams]], Russian duo [[Messer Chups]], [[Patrick Wolf]], [[DeVotchKa]], [[Roy Harter]], [[Pram (band)|Pram]], [[The Phenomenauts]] and [[Man or Astroman?]].
A theremin solo was featured in live versions of the song "[[Whole Lotta Love]]," by the band [[Led Zeppelin]], the instrument being played by the band's guitarist, [[Jimmy Page]]. The instrument was played by keyboardist Rob Schwimmer on the [[Simon and Garfunkel]] album [[Old Friends: Live on Stage]]. Rock band [[Supergrass]] uses a theremin in their song "[[Richard III (song)|Richard III]]", on the album ''In it for the Money''.
[[The Lothars]] are a Boston-area band whose CDs have featured as many as four theremins played at once.<ref>{{Citation
| last=Pomerantz
| first=Dorothy
| author-link=Dorothy Pomerantz
| title=The Lothars revive the spooky sounds of the theremin
| newspaper=[The Somerville Journal]
| year=1998
| date=September 17 1998}}
[[Goldfrapp|Alison Goldfrapp]] uses a portable theremin in her live performances for the song [[Train (Goldfrapp song)|Train]]; she plays the instrument in a decidedly sexual manner, using her legs to manipulate it. {{Fact|date=July 2007}}
[[Marilyn Manson (band)|Marilyn Manson]] uses a theremin, played by band member Madonna Wayne Gacy, in the song "Dope Hat." This can be seen in the video for the song.
[[Les Claypool's Fancy Band]] uses a theremin, played by [[Gabby La La]] in the song "Of Whales and Woe." It is seen during this song and others on the DVD ''[[Fancy (DVD)|Fancy]]''.
[[Tiamat (band)|Tiamat]] uses a theremin, played by its guitarist and vocalist [[Johan Edlund]], on the album [[A Deeper Kind of Slumber]].
Brazilian psychedelic band [[Os Mutantes]] made extensive use of theremin on their first records in the late 1960s.
''Project: Pimento'', based in San Francisco, is a music ensemble consisting of theremin, vocals, guitar, bass, and drums. Robby Virus, the band's founder and theremin player, was featured on the soundtrack to the movie ''[[Hellboy (film)|Hellboy]]'' (2004).{{Fact|date=September 2007}}
One of the most persistent theremin myths is that [[The Beach Boys]] used one in the 1966 recording of "[[Good Vibrations]]". [[Brian Wilson]] did request that a theremin be included in the studio orchestra for this recording, but neither the instrument nor a musician to play it were available at the time. Instead, [[Paul Tanner]] was brought in with his homemade device called an [[Electro-Theremin]], which featured mechanical controls that could mimic the theremin sound. For concert appearances, a slide-controlled oscillator was designed and built for Wilson by [[Robert Moog]].
[[John Otway]] uses the theremin as a featured part of his act both musically and for comedic effect <ref>[[The Mad, The Bad & The Dangerous]]</ref>.
[[Roger Ruskin Spear]] of the [[Bonzo Dog Band|Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Band]], uses a theremin "leg" in the song "Noises for the Leg" on their album ''[[Keynsham]]''.
=== In movies and movie soundtracks ===
The Russian [[Dmitri Shostakovich]] was the first composer to include parts for the theremin in orchestral pieces, including a use in his score for the 1931 film ''[[Odna]]''. While the theremin was not widely used in [[European classical music|classical music]] performances, the instrument found great success as the 'eerie' background sound in countless motion pictures, notably, ''[[Spellbound (1945 film)|Spellbound]]'', ''[[The Red House]]'', ''[[The Lost Weekend]]'', ''[[The Spiral Staircase]]'', ''[[The Day the Earth Stood Still]]'', ''[[The Thing (From Another World)]]'', ''[[The Ten Commandments (1956 film)|The Ten Commandments]]'' (the 1956 DeMille film), ''[[Ed Wood]]'', and ''[[Mars Attacks!]]''. The theremin is used as a melodic solo instrument, rather than as a sound effect, in the soundtracks of ''Raw Deal'', ''[[Hellboy]]'', ''[[Bartleby the Scrivener|Bartleby]]'', and ''Monster House''. The DVDs for ''Ed Wood'' and ''Bartleby'' both contain short features on the theremin.
Throughout the theremin's use in film music from the 1940s to the 1960s, its sound was equated with the bizarre and alien. Because of Clara Rockmore's professed distaste for such projects, the thereminist most commonly enlisted to perform anything from haunting melodies to eerie sound effects was [[Dr. Samuel Hoffmann]], whose performances can be heard most prominently in the soundtracks for ''[[Spellbound (1945 film)|Spellbound]]'' (1945) and ''[[The Day the Earth Stood Still]]'' (1951).
A theremin appears and is played in the Argentine movie ''[[La Niña Santa]].''
Actor [[Jerry Lewis]] plays a theremin briefly in the 1957 Paramount film ''[[The Delicate Delinquent]]''. The latter part of the scene actually uses thereminist Samuel Hoffman in the soundtrack, to which Jerry Lewis pantomimes the motions of playing the instrument.
A theremin is heard when the sword sings in the Bugs Bunny cartoon ''[[Knighty Knight Bugs]]''.{{Fact|date=August 2007}}
The theremin is sometimes employed by comedian [[Bill Bailey]] in his music themed comedy shows, usually in reference to the theremins association with science fiction and horror film music from the 1950s and 1960s.
It is often believed that the theremin was used for the soundtrack of [[Forbidden Planet]].{{Fact|date=August 2007}} In fact, self-built oscillator circuits and a [[ring modulator]] were used to create the 'electronic tonalities'. <ref>see [[Forbidden Planet]] article</ref>
A beautifully designed version of the theremin was seen and heard in the movie [[Captain Nemo and the Underwater City]].
A theremin is played by Lydia Kavina for the soundtrack of the 2004 film ''[[The Machinist]]'' (La Maquinista) to create eerie effects.<ref> {{cite web|url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0361862/fullcredits |title=Full cast and crew for Maquinista, El |accessdate=2007-09-01 |work=Internet Movie Database }}</ref>
=== In television ===
*The British television series ''[[Midsomer Murders]]'' uses a theremin in its popular theme tune as well as in underscore. The theremin part is played by Celia Sheen.<ref>
| last=Maxwell
| first = Francis
| title = Hands off for gripping theremin concert in Barnes
| url = http://www.makingmusiclondon.com/londharm/LH%20May05.pdf
| journal = London Harmony
| date = May 2005
| pages=6
| accessdate=2007-08-25
*[[Bill Bailey]], English comedian also uses a theremin in live performances on his stand up tours.
*In "[[The Ziff Who Came To Dinner]]" from ''[[The Simpsons]]'', [[Homer Simpson|Homer]] becomes upset when he believes that someone is playing his theremin in the attic.
*In the fifteenth episode of ''[[Mahou Sentai Magiranger]]'' "The Bride's Elder Brother ~Giruma Magi Majuna~," the Magiranger use a device known as the "Tell Me Theremin" which has supposedly not been used in 250 years.{{Fact|date=August 2007}}
*In May, 2007, the [[White Castle (restaurant)|White Castle]] American hamburger restaurant chain introduced a television ad featuring a theremin performance by musician [[Jon Bernhardt]] of the band [[The Lothars]].<ref>{{Citation
| last=Laban
| first=Linda
| author-link=Linda Laban
| title=The geek who captured the Castle
| newspaper=[The Boston Globe]
| pages=C4,C8
| year=2007
| date=May 7 2007
| url=http://www.boston.com/ae/music/articles/2007/05/07/the_geek_who_captured_the_castle/ }}
*In the [[Comedy Central]] travel program ''[[Gerhard Reinke's Wanderlust|Wanderlust]]'', host Gerhard Reinke is a theremin enthusiast and plays the instrument alongside traditional [[Ireland|Irish]] musicians in a [[pub]].
*In an episode of the TV sitcom ''[[Quintuplets]]'', Pearce Chase plays a theremin for the school [[talent show]].
=== In books ===
* In the novel [[Hannibal (novel)|''Hannibal'']], Hannibal Lecter buys and plays a theremin as well as other musical instruments.
* A theremin is played at a wedding ceremony in the [[Herman Wouk]] novel [[Marjorie Morningstar (novel)|''Marjorie Morningstar'']]
== Similar instruments ==
*The [[Ondes-Martenot]] also uses the principle of heterodyning oscillators, but it is touched while playing.
*The [[Electro-Theremin]] (or Tannerin) does not use heterodyning oscillators and has to be touched while playing, but it allows continuous variation of the frequency range and sounds similar to the theremin.
* [[The Persephone]], an analogue fingerboard synthesizer with CV and MIDI, inspired from Les Ondes Martenots or the Trautonium. The Persephone allows continuous variation of the frequency range from 1 to 10 octaves. The ribbon is pressure and position sensitive.
* [[Syntheremin]] is an extension of the theremin.
* The [[Croix Sonore]] (Sonorous Cross), is based on the theremin. It was developed by Russian composer [[Nicolas Obouchov]] in France, after he saw Lev Theremin demonstrate the theremin in 1924.
* The [[terpsitone]], also invented by Theremin, consisted of a platform fitted with space-controlling antennas, through and around which a dancer would control the musical performance. By most accounts, the instrument was nearly impossible to control. Of the three instruments built, only the last one, made in 1978 for Lydia Kavina, survives today.
*The [[Z.Vex Effects]] Fuzz Probe, Wah Probe and Tremolo Probe, using a theremin to control said effects. The Fuzz Probe can be used as a theremin, as it can through feedback oscillation create tones of any pitch.
== Hivatkozások ==
=== Irodalom ===
* {{cite book
| first = Carolina
=== Film és video ===
* {{cite video
| people = Martin, Steven M. (Director)
| year = 1995
| title = Theremin: An Electronic Odyssey
| url =
| medium = Film and DVD
| location =
| publisher = Orion/MGM
* {{cite video
| people = Olsen, William (Director)
| year = 1995
| title = Mastering the Theremin
| url =
| medium = Videotape (VHS) and DVD
| location =
| publisher = Moog Music and Little Big Films
* {{cite video
| people = Chuck Lorre, Bill Prady(Creators), Mark Cendrowksy (Director)
| year = 2011
| title = The Big Bang Theory (amerikai sitcom sorozat)
| url = http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1632227/
| medium = TV and later probably on DVD
| location =
| publisher = CBS
== Külső hivatkozások ==
* [http://thereminfamily.org Theremin Family]
* [http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/kplu/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=326982 Theremin Music Gaining Popularity] - Audio: [http://www.kplu.org KPLU]'s Bellamy Pailthorp reports.
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== Jegyzetek ==
[[Kategória:Elektrofon hangszerek]]
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