Mrszantogabor

Csatlakozott ekkor: 2006. május 11.
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<div class="usermessage"><div class="plainlinks">'''Itt hagyhatsz [http://hu.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=User_vita:Mrszantogabor&action=edit&section=new <font color="#614051">Üzenetet!</font>]</div></div>
 
==Effects==
:'''Minden szerkesztőnek jó munkát kívánok!'''
{{IAST|Taṇhā}} is said to be a principal cause of suffering in the world. [[Walpola Rahula]] states:<ref name="walpola1"/>
 
{{quote|According to the Buddha’s analysis, all the troubles and strife in the world, from little personal quarrels in families to great wars between nations and countries, arise out of this selfish ‘thirst’. From this point of view, all economic, political and social problems are rooted in this selfish ‘thirst’. Great statesmen who try to settle international disputes and talk of war and peace only in economic and political terms touch the superficialities, and never go deep into the real root of the problem. As the Buddha told Raṭṭapāla: “The world lacks and hankers, and is enslaved to “thirst” (taṇhādāso).}}
:Műhely:'''[[Wikipédia:Pécs-műhely|<font color="#FF4040" >Pécs</font>]]'''
:Közreműködések:[[User:Mrszantogabor/Munkáim|<font color="#FF4040" >itt!</font>]]
:<small>'''saját műhelyem''': [[Szerkesztő:Mrszantogabor/Buddhizmus áttekintése|<font color="#FF4040" >Buddhizmus</font>]]
 
In the ''Maha-nidana Sutta (The Great Causes Discourse)'', Buddha said:<ref>[http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.15.0.than.html Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997)] (See in particular the discourse section entitled "Dependent on Craving").</ref>
:<small>'''Röviden magamról''': [[Miskolc|<font color="#FF4040" >Miskolcon</font>]] születtem, [[Pest|<font color="#FF4040" >Pesten</font>]] nőttem fel és [[Pécs|<font color="#FF4040" >Pécsen</font>]] élek. [[2006|<font color="#FF4040" >2006</font>]]. májusától szerkesztem a magyar wikipédiát.</small>
 
{{quote|Now, craving is dependent on feeling, seeking is dependent on craving, acquisition is dependent on seeking, ascertainment is dependent on acquisition, desire and passion is dependent on ascertainment, attachment is dependent on desire and passion, possessiveness is dependent on attachment, stinginess is dependent on possessiveness, defensiveness is dependent on stinginess, and because of defensiveness, dependent on defensiveness, various evil, unskillful phenomena come into play: the taking up of sticks and knives; conflicts, quarrels, and disputes; accusations, divisive speech, and lies.}}
:{| style="border: 1px solid gray; background-color: #fdffe7;"
|rowspan="2" valign="top" | [[Image:Original_Barnstar.png|100px]]
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|style="font-size: x-large; padding: 0; vertical-align: bottom; height: 1.1em;" | '''Egy díj neked'''
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|style="vertical-align: top; border-top: 1px solid gray;" | Pécsről írt cikkeid miatt kapsz egy ilyet. Csak így tovább ;) [[Kép:Flag of Serbia and Montenegro.svg|22px]] [[User:Szajci|Szajci]]&nbsp;<sup>[[User_vita:Szajci|reci]]</sup> 2008. március 4., 10:58 (CET)
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==Cessation of==
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The [[Four Noble Truths|third noble truth]] teaches that the cessation of ''{{IAST|taṇhā}}'' is possible. For example, the ''[[Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta]]'' states:<ref>Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Kindle Locations 1341-1343</ref>
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: Bhikkhus, there is a noble truth about the cessation of suffering. It is the complete fading away and cessation of this craving [''tanha'']; its abandonment and relinquishment; getting free from and being independent of it.
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|style="font-size: x-large; padding: 0; vertical-align: bottom; height: 1.1em;" | '''A Pécsről írt szócikkekért'''
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|style="vertical-align: top; border-top: 1px solid gray;" |Lokálpatriótaként örömmel nézem a tevékenységedet. Csak így tovább![[Szerkesztő:Carlos71|Carlos71]] <sup>[[Szerkesztővita:Carlos71|vita]]</sup> 2010. március 10., 20:50 (CET)
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{{Köszönet a 2013. évi munkáért!}}
{{díj
|kép=Lots_of_barnstars.png
|cím= Jó cikk!
|üzenet= Ezt a sok barnstart azért kapod, mert 2013. augusztus 19. óta, amióta van a huwikin is Jó szócikk státusz, vagyis '''éppen 1 éve!''', legalább 1 alkalommal jelöltél vagy véleményeztél cikket az eljárásban, és ezzel jelentős mértékben hozzájárultál ennek az intézménynek a fenntartásához és a Magyar Wikipédia színvonalának emeléséhez. Csak így tovább! ;) [[Szerkesztő:Hujber Tünde|Tündi]] <sup>[[Szerkesztővita:Hujber Tünde|vita]]</sup> 2014. augusztus 19., 12:10 (CEST)
}}
 
According to the four noble truths, cessation of {{IAST|taṇhā}} can be obtained by following the [[Noble Eightfold Path]]. Within this path, contemplating the [[impermanence|impermanent nature]] of all things is regarded as a specific antidote to {{IAST|taṇhā}}.
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==Contrast to wholesome desire (chanda)==
The Buddhist teachings contrast the reflexive, self-centered desire of ''taṇhā'' with wholesome types of desire, such as the desire to benefit others or the desire to follow the Buddhist path.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|The Buddhist tradition identifies two types of desire:
* Dalai Lama states: "There are two types of desire: One type is without reason and is mixed with the afflictive emotions. The second type views what is good as good and seeks to achieve it. This latter type of desire is right, and it is in terms of it that a practitioner engages in practice. Similarly, the pursuit of material progress based on the perception that it can serve humankind and is therefore good is also correct."{{sfn|Dalai Lama|2013|loc=Kindle Locations 466-469}}
* Smith and Novak state: "Tanha is usually translated as “desire.” There is some truth in this, but if we try to make “desire” tanha’s equivalent, we run into difficulties. To begin with, the equivalence would make this Second Truth unhelpful, for to shut down desires, all desires, in our present state would be to die, and to die is not to solve life’s problem. But beyond being unhelpful, the claim of equivalence would be flatly wrong, for there are some desires the Buddha explicitly advocated—the desire for liberation, for example, or for the happiness of others."{{sfn|Smith|Novak|2009|p=35}} }} Wholesome types of desire are traditionally identified as ''[[Chanda (Buddhism)|chanda]]''.<ref name="succito">Ajahn Sucitto (2010), Kindle Locations 933-944</ref><ref>P. A. Payutto. [http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma2/becono2.html#* Buddhist Economics, Chapter 2]</ref>{{refn|group=lower-alpha|The authors Rhys Davids &amp; Stede (1921-5, ''ibid''., pp. 275-6, [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:1594.pali entry for "Chanda")] present an alternate definition; they assert that "''chanda'' has both positive and negative connotations; as a vice, it is often associated with ''r&#x101;ga'' (lust)."}}
 
[[Ajahn Sucitto]] states:
[[Kép:Tesseract.gif|right|65px|]]
:Sometimes taṇhā is translated as “desire,” but that gives rise to some crucial misinterpretations with reference to the way of Liberation. As we shall see, some form of desire is essential in order to aspire to, and persist in, cultivating the path out of dukkha. Desire as an eagerness to offer, to commit, to apply oneself to meditation, is called [[Chanda (Buddhism)|chanda]]. It’s a psychological “yes,” a choice, not a pathology. In fact, you could summarize Dhamma training as the transformation of taṇhā into chanda. It’s a process whereby we guide volition, grab and hold on to the steering wheel, and travel with clarity toward our deeper well-being. So we’re not trying to get rid of desire (which would take another kind of desire, wouldn’t it). Instead, we are trying to transmute it, take it out of the shadow of gratification and need, and use its aspiration and vigor to bring us into light and clarity.<ref name="succito"/>
[[Kategória:Férfi wikipédisták]]
 
[[Kategória:Szűz csillagjegyű szerkesztők]]
==Relation to the three poisons==
[[Kategória:Buddhista wikipédisták]]
{{IAST|Taṇhā}} and [[Avidya (Buddhism)|avidya]] (ignorance) can be related to the [[three poisons]] as follows:{{refn|group=lower-alpha|{{IAST|Taṇhā}} and [[Avidya (Buddhism)|avidya]] (ignorance) can be related to the [[three poisons]]:
[[Kategória:Pécsi wikipédisták|Mrszantogabor]]
* Peter Harvey states: "This teaches that everything internal and external to a person is ‘burning’ with the ‘fires’ of attachment, hatred (''raga'', ''dosa'' (Skt ''dvesha'')) and delusion (''moha'') and of birth, ageing and death. Here the ‘fires’ refer both to the causes of dukkha and to dukkha itself. Attachment (i.e. sensual and other forms of lust) and hatred are closely related to craving for things and craving to be rid of things, and delusion is synonymous with spiritual ignorance. Nirvana during life is frequently defined as the destruction of these three ‘fires’ or defilements (e.g. S.IV. 251 (BW. 364; EB. 3.4.1))."{{sfn|Harvey|2013|p=73}}
* Rupert Gethin relates ''tanha'' to aversion and ignorance as follows: "The psychological relationship of aversion to craving is not hard to see. Unfulfilled craving and frustrated attachment become the conditions for aversion, anger, depression, hatred, and cruelty and violence which are in themselves quite manifestly unpleasant (duḥkha as pain) and in turn bring further suffering. But what about doubt, agitation, and ignorance? Developed Buddhist thought understands these states as having an important psychological relationship. Even in the absence of craving and aversion, we view the world through a mind that is often fundamentally unclear, unsettled, and confused. Not surprisingly we fail to see things as they truly are. At this point it begins to become quite apparent just how and why craving leads to suffering. There is a discrepancy between our craving and the world we live in, between our expectations and the way things are. We want the world to be other than it is. Our craving is based on a fundamental misjudgement of the situation; a judgement that assumes that when our craving gets what it wants we will be happy, that when our craving possesses the objects of its desire we will be satisfied. But such a judgement in turn assumes a world in which things are permanent, unchanging, stable, and reliable. But the world is simply not like that. In short, in craving we fail to see how things truly are, and in failing to see how things truly are we crave. In other words craving goes hand in hand with a fundamental ignorance and misapprehension of the nature of the world.{{sfn|Gethin|1998|pp=73-74}}
* Ron Leifer relates ''tanha'' to ''raga'' and ''doha'' as follows: "''Tanha'' itself is bibolar, divided into greed and hatred, or passion and aggression. On the one hand is the desire to have something, to possess it, to experience it, to pull it in, to own it. On the other hand is the desire to avoid something, to keep it away, reject it, renounce it, destroy it, and separate it from oneself. If we call these two poles desire and aversion, we can see more clearly that they represent the antithetical poles of taṇhā–the desire to possess and the desire to get rid of.{{sfn|Leifer|1997|p=96}}
* Leifer relates ''tanha'' to ''avidya'' (''moho'') as follows: "Tanha, desire, is interwoven with avidya, ignorance, by means of the mistaken presumption that the samsaric dance of opposites is ultimate reality. Ignorance is the mother of greed and hatred because it gives them life. It rationalizes and justifies them."{{sfn|Leifer|1997|p=97}} }}
* ''[[Avidya (Buddhism)|Avidya]]'' or ''Moha'' (ignorance), the root of the three poisons, is also the basis for ''taṇhā''.
* ''[[Raga (Buddhism)|Raga]]'' (attachment) is equivalent to ''bhava-taṇhā'' (craving to be) and kāma-taṇhā (sense-craving).
* ''[[Dvesha (Buddhism)|Dosa (Dvesha)]]'' (aversion) is equivalent to ''vibhava-taṇhā'' (craving not to be).
 
For example, in the [[Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta|first discourse]] of the Buddha, the Buddha identified ''tanha'' as the principle cause of suffering. However, his third discourse, the ''[[Fire Sermon]]'', and other suttas, the Buddha identifies the causes of suffering as the "fires" of ''raga'', ''dosa'' (''dvesha''), and ''moha''; in the ''Fire Sermon'', the Buddha states that nirvana is obtained by extinguishing these fires.{{sfn|Harvey|2013|p=73}}
 
==Relation to addiction==
{{IAST|Taṇhā}} is sometimes related to the Western psychological concept of ''[[addiction]]''. For example:
* The [[Dalai Lama]] states:
*:Much human suffering stems from destructive emotions, as hatred breeds violence or ''craving fuels addiction.''<ref>emphasis added</ref> One of our most basic responsibilities as caring people is to alleviate the human costs of such out-of-control emotions.<ref>Goleman, Daniel (2008). Kindle Location 107. (from the Forward by the Dalai Lama)</ref>
* Ron Leifer states:
*:Obsessions, compulsions, and addictions are desires out of control, desires gone wild.<ref>Leifer (1997), p. 93.</ref>
* [[Mingyur Rinpoche]] states:
*: Attachment is in many ways comparable to addiction, a compulsive dependency on external objects or experiences to manufacture an illusion of wholeness. Unfortunately, like other addictions, attachment becomes more intense over time.<ref>Mingyur Rinpoche (2007), p. 119</ref>{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Note: Mingyur Rinpoche is specifically referring to rāga (one of the [[Three poisons (Buddhism)|three poisons]]); but rāga is equivalent to kāma-taṇhā (sense-craving), one of the three channels of taṇhā.}}
* [[Christopher Titmuss]] states:
*: [Tanha] is desire with other factors that are going along with it, which in some way or other are unhealthy. To take what’s called the three poisons of the mind: greed, it’s got desire in it, obviously; anger, violence, it has desire in it; fear, has desire in it; confusion, has desire in it. So, replication of the word is “desire” is something which is problematic, which has an impact on our own life. Stress has desire in it, worry has desire in it, anxiety, etc. And it also has its impacting consequence on others. [http://www.buddhistgeeks.com/2010/06/bg-176-the-place-of-the-erotic/ Interview with Christopher Titmuss]
 
==Symbolic representations of==
{{IAST|Taṇhā}} is sometimes identified as one of [[Mara (demon)|Māra]]'s three daughters, along with Arati (Boredom), and [[Raga (Buddhism)|Rāga]] (Passion). In some accounts of the Buddha's enlightenment, it is said that the demon Māra sent his three daughters to tempt the Buddha to give up his quest.<ref>[http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/guruge/wheel419.html#fn-26 The Buddha's Encounters with Mara the Tempter]</ref><ref>See, e.g., [[Samyutta Nikaya|SN]] 4.25 (Bodhi, 2000, pp. 217-20), and [[Suttanipata|Sn]] 835 (Saddhatissa, 1998, p. 98).</ref>
 
In a similar fashion, in Sn 436 (Saddhatissa, 1998, p.&nbsp;48), ''{{IAST|taṇhā}} '' is personified as one of Death's four armies (''senā'') along with desire (''[[kāma|kāmā]]''), aversion (''arati'') and hunger-thirst (''khuppipāsā'').
 
==Translating the term ''tanha''==
The term ''tanha'' is sometimes translated as "craving" or "desire". However, some translators prefer to leave the term ''{{IAST|taṇhā}}'' untranslated. For example, Smith and Novak emphasize the difficulty of translating this term as follows:
: The cause of life’s dislocation is ''tanha''. Again, imprecisions of translations—all are to some degree inaccurate—make it wise to stay close to the original word. Tanha is usually translated as “desire.” There is some truth in this, but if we try to make “desire” tanha’s equivalent, we run into difficulties. To begin with, the equivalence would make this Second Truth unhelpful, for to shut down desires, all desires, in our present state would be to die, and to die is not to solve life’s problem. But beyond being unhelpful, the claim of equivalence would be flatly wrong, for there are some desires the Buddha explicitly advocated—the desire for liberation, for example, or for the happiness of others.{{sfn|Smith|Novak|2009|p=35}}
 
==Etymology==
The literal meaning of ''{{IAST|taṇhā}}'' is "thirst".<ref name=mwd>Monier Williams, 1964, p. 454, entry for "{{IAST|Tṛishṇā}}," retrieved 2008-06-12 from "U. Cologne" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/MWScanpdf/mw0454-tRpAya.pdf.</ref><ref name=ped>Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 294, entry for "Ta{{IAST|ṇ}}hā," retrieved 2008-06-12 from "U. Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:1936.pali.</ref>
 
One source suggests that the opposite of {{IAST|taṇhā}} is ''[[upekkha]]'' (peace of mind, equanimity).<ref name=ped />