„Individualizmus” változatai közötti eltérés

cikkírás 2
(cikkírás 2)
 
==Etimológia==
TheAz conceptindividualizmus ofelőször "individualism"a was first used by the Frenchkorai [[Saint-SimonianismFranciaország|Saint-Simonianfrancia]] [[socialismszocializmus|socialistsszocialistáknál]], to describe what they believed was the cause of the disintegration of French society after thea [[1789]] [[French Revolutionsaint-simonizmus|Revolution]].saint-simonistáknál The term was however already used (pejoratively) by [[reactionary]] thinkers of the French Theocraticjelent Schoolmeg, suchmint asaz [[Joseph de Maistre1789]], inutáni theirtársadalmi oppositionszéthúzás to political liberalismmagyarázata. TheEbben Saint-Simoniansaz dididőben nota seekonzervatív politicalantiindividualisták liberalisma asforradalom theegalitarianizmusát problem thoughtámadták, but saw in "individualism" a form of "egoism" or "anarchy," the "ruthless exploitation of man by man in modern industry." While the conservative antisaint-individualistssimonisták attackedpedig thea politicalgazdasági egalitarianism brought about by the Revolution, the Saint-Simonians criticizedliberalizmust (''[[laissez-faire]]'' (economic liberalism), foramely itsnem perceivedvolt failureképes tocsökkenteni copea withgazdagok theés increasingszegények inequalityközött betweenkialakuló richegyre andnövekvő poorkülönbségeket. [[Socialism]]A saint-simonisták az individualizmus ,,egoista aanarchizmusával" wordszemben introducedaz byelképzelt thetársadalmi Saint-Simoniansharmóniát, wasaz toő bringszavukkal aboutélve "sociala harmonyszocializmust támogatták." <ref name="Swart">{{cite journal| author = Swart, Koenraad W. | title = "Individualism" in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (1826-1860) | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1962 | volume = 23 | issue = 1 | pages = 77-90}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal| author = [[Steven Lukes|Lukes, Steven]] | title = The Meanings of "Individualism" | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1971 | volume = 32 | issue = 1 | pages = 45-66}}</ref><ref name="Claeys">{{cite journal| author = Claeys, Gregory | title = "Individualism," "Socialism," and "Social Science": Further Notes on a Process of Conceptual Formation, 1800-1850 | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1986 | volume = 47 | issue = 1 | pages = 81-93}}</ref>
Az individualizmus először a korai [[Franciaország|francia]] [[szocializmus|szocialistáknál]], a [[saint-simonizmus|saint-simonistáknál ]] jelent meg, mint az [[1789]] utáni társadalmi széthúzás magyarázata.<!--
The concept of "individualism" was first used by the French [[Saint-Simonianism|Saint-Simonian]] [[socialism|socialists]], to describe what they believed was the cause of the disintegration of French society after the [[1789]] [[French Revolution|Revolution]]. The term was however already used (pejoratively) by [[reactionary]] thinkers of the French Theocratic School, such as [[Joseph de Maistre]], in their opposition to political liberalism. The Saint-Simonians did not see political liberalism as the problem though, but saw in "individualism" a form of "egoism" or "anarchy," the "ruthless exploitation of man by man in modern industry." While the conservative anti-individualists attacked the political egalitarianism brought about by the Revolution, the Saint-Simonians criticized ''[[laissez-faire]]'' (economic liberalism), for its perceived failure to cope with the increasing inequality between rich and poor. [[Socialism]], a word introduced by the Saint-Simonians, was to bring about "social harmony."<ref name="Swart">{{cite journal| author = Swart, Koenraad W. | title = "Individualism" in the Mid-Nineteenth Century (1826-1860) | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1962 | volume = 23 | issue = 1 | pages = 77-90}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal| author = [[Steven Lukes|Lukes, Steven]] | title = The Meanings of "Individualism" | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1971 | volume = 32 | issue = 1 | pages = 45-66}}</ref><ref name="Claeys">{{cite journal| author = Claeys, Gregory | title = "Individualism," "Socialism," and "Social Science": Further Notes on a Process of Conceptual Formation, 1800-1850 | journal = Journal of the History of Ideas | year = 1986 | volume = 47 | issue = 1 | pages = 81-93}}</ref>
 
Az [[angol]] nyelvben az ,,''individualism''" szó pejoratív értelemben szerepelt először: az [[1830-as évek]]ben az [[owenizmus|owenisták]] a saint-simonistákat követve vagy tőlük függetlenül használták<ref name="Claeys"/>. Pozítivabban [[James Elishama Smith]] írásaiban szerepelt először. Smith korábban owenista szocialista volt, de később elvetette az általuk sugalmazott kollektivista tulajdonkezelést, és az individualizmusban az egyéni tehetség kiteljesítésének lehetőségét látta. Érvelése az egyéni boldogságot az individuum saját szerzésvágyának beteljesüléséhez kötötte<ref name="Claeys"/>. [[William Maccall]] 1847-ben ''Elements of Individualism'' című munkájában például [[John Stuart Mill]] szellemében érvelt az individualizmus mellett<ref name="Swart"/>.
In the [[English language]], the word "individualism" was first introduced, as a pejorative, by the [[Owenism|Owenites]] in the 1830s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by Saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently.<ref name="Claeys"/> A more positive use of the term in Britain came to be used with the writings of [[James Elishama Smith]]. Although an early Owenite socialist, he eventually rejected its collective idea of property, and found in individualism a "universalism" that allowed for the development of the "original genius." Without individualism, Smith argued, individuals cannot amass property to increase one's happiness.<ref name="Claeys"/> [[William Maccall]], another [[Unitarian]] preacher, and probably an acquaintance of Smith, came somewhat later, although influenced by [[John Stuart Mill]], [[Thomas Carlyle]], and [[Romanticism|German Romanticism]], to the same positive conclusions, in his 1847 work "Elements of Individualism".<ref name="Swart"/>
 
==Politikai individualizmus==
==Political individualism==
A politika[[filozófia]] mezőjében az individualista elmélet olyan kormányzatot képzel el, amelyben az [[állam]] feladata megvédeni az egyén szabadságát, de más területeken nem beleavatkozni az életébe. Ez ellentétes a kollektivizmus különböző elméleteivel: ezek az egyéntől elvárják a társadalom számára való hasznosságot, és beleakarnak szólni az egyén életébe, hogy az társadalmilag hasznossá váljék. A politikafilozófiában az individualizmust a laissez faire-rel is rokonítják.
In political philosophy, the individualist theory of [[government]] holds that the state should take a merely defensive role by protecting the liberty of each individual to act as he or she wishes as long he or she does not infringe on the same liberty of another. This contrasts with collectivist political theories, where, rather than leaving the individual to pursue his or her own ends, the state ensures that the individual serves the interests of society when taken as a whole. The term has also been used to describe "individual initiative" and "freedom of the individual" in general, perhaps best described by the French term "[[laissez faire]]," a verb meaning "to let [the people] do" [for themselves what they know how to do].
 
A gyakorlatban az individualisták kiállnak az egyéni autonómiáért az társadalmi intézményekkel (pl. az állammal) szemben. Kiemelik a kisebbség jogait a többséggel szemben, az egyént a legkisebb kisebbségnek tekintve. Csak az olyan [[demokrácia|demokráciákat]] tudják elfogadni, ahol az [[alkotmány]] védi meg az egyéni szabadságot akkor is, ha a társadalmi jó érdekében akarnák korlátozni. Az egyéni szabadságot itt polgári és gazdasági értelemben is kell érteni. Elvetik a kereskedelem és ipar köztulajdonát, azzal érvelnek, hogy a nép képviselőinél nincsen jó kézben semmi, mert nem elég képzettek és felelősségteljesek. Másik érvük, hogy az jól működő államot polgárainak az egyéni előrehaladásra való vágya viszi előre. A radikális individualizmus az [[individualista anarchizmus]].
In practice, individualists are chiefly concerned with protecting individual autonomy against obligations imposed by social institutions (such as the state). Many individualists pay particular attention to protecting the liberties of the minority against the wishes of the majority and see the individual as the smallest minority. For example, individualists oppose [[democracy|democratic]] systems unless constitutional protections exist that do not allow individual liberty to be diminished by the interests of the majority. These concerns encompass both civil and economic liberties. One typical concern is opposition to any concentration of commercial and industrial enterprise in the hands of the state, and the municipality. The principles upon which this opposition is based are mainly two: that popularly-elected representatives are not likely to have the qualifications, or the sense of responsibility, required for dealing with the multitudinous enterprises, and the large sums of public money involved in civic administration; and that the "health of the state" depends upon the exertions of individuals for their personal benefit (who, "like cells", are the containers of the life of the body). Individualism may take a radicalist approach, as in [[individualist anarchism]].
 
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For some political individualists, who hold a view known as [[methodological individualism]], the word "society" can never refer to anything more than a very large collection of individuals. Society does not have an existence above or beyond these individuals, and thus cannot be properly said to carry out actions, since actions require intentionality, intentionality requires an agent, and society as a whole cannot be properly said to possess agency; only individuals can be agents. The same holds for the government. Under this view, a government is composed of individuals; despite that democratic governments are elected by popular vote, the fact remains that all of the activities of government are carried out by means of the intentions and actions of individuals. Strictly speaking, the government itself does not act. For example, the point is sometimes made that "we" have decided to enact a certain policy, and sometimes this usage is used to imply that the entity known as "society" supports the policy and thus it is justified. The methodological individualist points out that "we" in fact did not enact or carry out this policy; among those who voted, a certain group of people voted for the policy, individuals all, and another group voted against it. The decision that emerged was not made by the "people", or by the "government"; it was made by those on the winning side of the vote. This is significant because in any collective there exists individuals who oppose the policy whose wills are being overridden, and the use of "we" tends to obscure that fact. The individualist wishes to highlight the importance of the individual and prevent subsumption into a collective. For these reasons, methodological individualists tend to disagree with claims such as "we deserve the government we have, because we are doing it to ourselves," since perhaps that individual and very possibly many others disagree with the actions of the individuals who hold government power. That said, many individualists are willing to use "we" in reference to government or society as a convenient shorthand as long as the fact that these entities are composed of individuals is kept in mind.
 
 
Individualism, sometimes closely associated with certain variants of [[individualist anarchism]], [[libertarianism]] or [[classical liberalism]], typically takes it for granted that individuals know best and that public authority or [[society]] has the right to interfere in the person's decision-making process only when a very compelling need to do so arises (and maybe not even in those circumstances). This type of argument is often observed in relation to policy debates regarding regulation of industries.
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==Gazdasági individualizmus==
==Economic individualism==
Az gazdasági individualizmus lényege a magántulajdon és az egyéni gazdasági döntések rendszere a köztulajdonnal és a kollektív döntéshozatallal szemben. A kapitalizmus alapvetően erre épül, közvetlen gazdasági megvalósulása a laissez-faire.
The [[doctrine]] of economic individualism holds that each individual should be allowed [[autonomy]] in making his own economic decisions as opposed to those decisions being made by the [[state]], or the [[community]], for him. Moreover, it advocates the [[private ownership]] of [[property]] as opposed to state or [[collective]] arrangements. [[Capitalism]] is often said to be an economic system based on these views. The specific form of capitalism that adheres very strictly to the views of economic individualism is called ''[[laissez-faire]]'' capitalism.
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==Individualism and US history==
At the time of the formation of the [[United States]], many of its citizens had fled from state or religious oppression in Europe and were influenced by the egalitarian and fraternal ideals that later found expression in the [[French revolution]]. Such ideas influenced the framers of the [[United States Constitution|U.S. Constitution]] (the Jeffersonian [[United States Democratic-Republican Party|Democratic-Republicans]]) who believed that the government should seek to protect individual rights in the constitution itself; this idea later led to the [[United States Bill of Rights|Bill of Rights]]. According to Ronald Scollon, the "fundamental American ideology of individualism" can be summarized by the following two statements: 1. The individual is the basis of all reality and all society. 2. The individual is defined by what he or she is not." Explaining the latter statement, he says that American individualism emphasizes that the individual is ''not'' subject to arbitrary laws, and ''not'' subject to domination by historical precedent and preference.<ref>Scollon, Ronald. Intercultural Communication. Blackwell Publishing. 2001. p. 221</ref>
 
Critics challenge individualists to reconcile their philosophy with the fact that the human being is classified scientifically as a [[social animal]]. Individualists either reject the scientific description or if they do accept the science do not see a conflict.
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==References==
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