„Szerkesztő:Hollófernyiges/próbalap2” változatai közötti eltérés

A szerelmes férfiak tesztoszteronszintje csökken, míg a nőké megnövekszik; ennek oka feltehetően az, hogy a nemek viselkedése eltérő a párkeresési és a párkapcsolati szakaszban.<ref name="pmid15177709">{{cite journal | vauthors = Marazziti D, Canale D | title = Hormonal changes when falling in love | journal = Psychoneuroendocrinology | volume = 29 | issue = 7 | pages = 931–36 | date = Aug 2004 | pmid = 15177709 | doi = 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2003.08.006 }}</ref> A "rózsaszín köd" elmúlásakor azonban - kb négy évnyi kapcsolat után - ez a hatás már nem figyelhető meg.<ref name="pmid15177709" /> Kutatások szerint a párkapcsolatban vagy házasságban férfiaknak alacsonyabb a horminszintje.<ref name="pmid16621328">{{cite journal | vauthors = van Anders SM, Watson NV | title = Relationship status and testosterone in North American heterosexual and non-heterosexual men and women: cross-sectional and longitudinal data | journal = Psychoneuroendocrinology | volume = 31 | issue = 6 | pages = 715–23 | date = Jul 2006 | pmid = 16621328 | doi = 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.01.008 | hdl = 2027.42/83924 }}</ref><ref name = "Booth_Dabbs_1993"/> and men who produce more testosterone are more likely to divorce;<ref name = "Booth_Dabbs_1993">{{cite journal | vauthors = Booth A, Dabbs JM|title=Testosterone and Men's Marriages | journal = Social Forces | year = 1993 | volume = 72 | issue = 2 | pages = 463–77 | doi = 10.1093/sf/72.2.463}}</ref><ref name=Mazur_Michalek_1998>{{cite journal | vauthors = Mazur A, Michalek J | title = Marriage, Divorce, and Male Testosterone | journal = Social Forces | year = 1998 | volume = 77 | issue = 1 | pages = 315–30 | doi = 10.1093/sf/77.1.315 }}</ref> Azok az egyedülálló férfiak, akiknek korábban volt már barátnőjük, nagyobb hormonkoncentrációval rendelkeznek, mint azok, akiknek nem volt ilyen tapasztalatuk.<ref name=Gray_2004>{{cite journal | vauthors = Gray PB, Chapman JF, Burnham TC, McIntyre MH, Lipson SF, Ellison PT | title = Human male pair bonding and testosterone | journal = Human Nature | volume = 15 | issue = 2 | pages = 119–31 | date = Jun 2004 | pmid = 26190409 | doi = 10.1007/s12110-004-1016-6 }}</ref> A magas hormonszintű házas férfiak nagyobb eséllyel csalják meg házastársukat.<ref name=Booth_Dabbs_1993/>
 
Az apaság tovább csökkenti a férfiak tesztoszterontermelését, ami valószínűleg a gyerekneveléshez szükséges viselkedés és érzelmek kialakításához szükséges.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Bribiescas RG, Ellison PT, Gray PB |date=December 2012|title=Male Life History, Reproductive Effort, and the Evolution of the Genus Homo|journal=Current Anthropology|volume=53|issue=S6|pages=S424–S435|doi=10.1086/667538}}</ref>
====Fatherhood====
Fatherhood decreases testosterone levels in men, suggesting that the emotions and behavior tied to decreased testosterone promote paternal care. In humans and other species that utilize [[Allomothering|allomaternal care]], paternal investment in offspring is beneficial to said offspring's survival because it allows the parental [[Dyad (sociology)|dyad]] to raise multiple children simultaneously. This increases the reproductive fitness of the parents, because their offspring are more likely to survive and reproduce. Paternal care increases offspring survival due to increased access to higher quality food and reduced physical and immunological threats.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Bribiescas RG, Ellison PT, Gray PB |date=December 2012|title=Male Life History, Reproductive Effort, and the Evolution of the Genus Homo|journal=Current Anthropology|volume=53|issue=S6|pages=S424–S435|doi=10.1086/667538}}</ref> This is particularly beneficial for humans since offspring are dependent on parents for extended periods of time and mothers have relatively short inter-birth intervals.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Kramer KL, Otárola-Castillo E | title = When mothers need others: The impact of hominin life history evolution on cooperative breeding | journal = Journal of Human Evolution | volume = 84 | pages = 16–24 | date = July 2015 | pmid = 25843884 | doi = 10.1016/j.jhevol.2015.01.009 }}</ref>
 
While extent of paternal care varies between cultures, higher investment in direct child care has been seen to be correlated with lower average testosterone levels as well as temporary fluctuations.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Gettler LT | title = Applying socioendocrinology to evolutionary models: fatherhood and physiology | journal = Evolutionary Anthropology | volume = 23 | issue = 4 | pages = 146–60 | date = 2014-07-08 | pmid = 25116846 | doi = 10.1002/evan.21412 }}</ref> For instance, fluctuation in testosterone levels when a child is in distress has been found to be indicative of fathering styles. If a father's testosterone levels decrease in response to hearing their baby cry, it is an indication of empathizing with the baby. This is associated with increased nurturing behavior and better outcomes for the infant.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://psychcentral.com/news/2015/10/30/parenting-skills-influenced-by-testosterone-levels-empathy/94175.html|title=Parenting Skills Influenced by Testosterone Levels, Empathy|last=Nauert|first=Rick|date=2015-10-30|website=Psych Central}}</ref>
 
====Motivation====