Legutóbb hozzászólt Ant 19 évvel ezelőtt a(z) Innen: témában

Faji betegség, wikipédia önreferencia szerkesztés

A hatalom gyakorlása az embernél, mint szociális és saját fajtájának a társaságát kereső lénynél, faji betegség.
Erre utal a wikipedia legutóbbi áramszünet során kiírt üzenete is:

„Power corrupts. Power failure corrupts completely.”

Ez a megfogalmazás (faji betegség) honnan származik? Jó lenne megjelölni.

Remélem a to corrupt szó jelentését nem kell ide másolnom - vagyis azt, hogy a korruptá tett valami/valaki hogyan lesz nem egészséges azaz, beteg...

Ja minek is kéne xD By:Dévid® xD Xd :D

Innen: szerkesztés

Elnézést az alábbi idézetekért. Használat után ki lehet törölni.

Nyenyec javaslatára (jó lenne megjelölni a frrsát) Power (sociology) (wikipedia, angol eredeteiből), tartalomjegyzék előtti utolsó mondat:

“The exercise of power seems endemic to humans as social and gregarious beings.”

Az endemic szó jelentése. A szerző valószínűleg az innate-et akarta mondani (lásd lejjebb)


adj 1: of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; "diseases endemic to the tropics"; "endemic malaria"; "food shortages and starvation are endemic in certain parts of the world" [syn: endemical] [ant: epidemic, ecdemic] 2: native to or confined to a certain region; "the islands have a number of interesting endemic species" [ant: cosmopolitan] 3: originating where it is found; "the autochthonal fauna of Australia includes the kangaroo"; "autochthonous rocks and people and folktales"; "endemic folkways"; "the Ainu are indigenous to the northernmost islands of Japan" [syn: autochthonal, autochthonic, autochthonous, indigenous] n 1: a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location [syn: endemic disease] 2: a plant that is native to a certain limited area; "it is an endemic found only this island"

Innate adj.

Synonyms: innate, inborn, inbred, congenital, hereditary

These adjectives mean existing in a person or thing from birth or origin. Something that is innate seems essential to the nature, character, or constitution: innate common sense. Inborn strongly implies that something has been present since birth: inborn intelligence. What is inbred has often been ingrained through earliest training or associations: an inbred love of music. Congenital is applied principally to characteristics, especially defects, acquired during fetal development: a congenital disease. It is also used figuratively of characteristics or people with characteristics that are so deep-seated as to appear natural: a congenital pessimism; a congenital liar. Hereditary refers to what is transmitted by biological heredity (a hereditary heart anomaly) or by tradition: “that ignorance and superstitiousness hereditary to all sailors” (Herman Melville).

A második részt, kivettem, mert egyrész önreferencia, másrészt nem értem, hogyan kapcsolódik a faji betegséghez. Harmadrészt angol szójáték a power szó több jelentéséről, magyarra nagyon nehéz jól lefordítani. Negyedrészt egy híres idézet vicces elferdítése: "power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely", amely, ha jól tudom Lord Acton-tól származik:

All power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority: still more when you superadd the tendency or the certainty of corruption by authority.
És nem szereted a vicceket?

Ant 2005. március 6., 18:15 (CET)Válasz

nyenyec  2005. március 6., 17:56 (CET)Válasz

Deconstruction often works to reveal hidden power structures and relationships.

"One needs to be nominalistic, no doubt: power is not an institution, and not a structure; neither is it a certain strength we are endowed with; it is the name that one attributes to a complex strategical situation in a particular society." (History of Sexuality, p.93)

"Domination" is not "that solid and global kind of domination that one person exercises over others, or one group over another, but the manifold forms of domination that can be exercised within society." (ibid, p.96)

"One should try to locate power at the extreme of its exercise, where it is always less legal in character." (ibid, p.97)

"The analysis [of power] should not attempt to consider power from its internal point of view and...should refrain from posing the labyrinthine and unanswerable question: 'Who then has power and what has he in mind? What is the aim of someone who possesses power?' Instead, it is a case of studying power at the point where its intention, if it has one, is completely invested in its real and effective practices." (ibid, p.97)

"Let us things work at the level of on-going subjugation, at the level of those continous and uninterrupted processes which subject our bodies, govern our gestures, dictate our behaviours, etc....we should try to discover how it is that subjects are gradually, progressively, really and materially constituted through a multiplicity of organisms, forces, energies, materials, desires, thoughts, etc. We should try to grasp subjection in its material instance as a constitution of subjects." (ibid, p.97)

Toffler szerkesztés

Alvin Toffler's Powershift argues that the three main kinds of power are violence, wealth, and knowledge with other kinds of power being variations of these three (typically knowledge).

Each successive kind of power represents a more flexible kind of power. Violence can only be used negatively, to punish. Wealth can be used both negatively (by withholding money) and positively (by advancing/spending money). Knowledge can be used in these ways but, additionally, can be used in a transformative way. For example, one can share knowledge on agriculture to ensure that everyone is capable of supplying himself and his family of food. Also, allied nations with a shared identity form with the spread of religious or political philosophies.

Toffler argues that the very nature of power is currently shifting. Throughout history, power has often shifted from one group to another; however, at this time, the dominant form of power is changing. During the Industrial Revolution, power shifted from a nobility acting primarily through violence to industrialists and financiers acting through wealth. Of course, the nobility used wealth just as the industrial elite used violence, but the dominant form of power shifted from violence to wealth. Today, a Third Wave of shifting power is taking place with wealth being overtaken by knowledge.

Unmarked Categories szerkesztés

The idea of unmarked categories originated in feminism. The theory analyses the culture of the powerful. The powerful comprise those people in society with easy access to resources, those who can exercise power without considering their actions. For the powerful, their culture seems obvious; for the powerless, on the other hand, it remains out of reach, élite and expensive.

The unmarked category can form the identifying mark of the powerful. The unmarked category becomes the standard against which to measure everything else. For most American readers, it is posited that if a protagonist's race is not indicated, it will be assumed by the reader that the protagonist is Caucasian; if a sexual identity is not indicated, it will be assumed by the reader that the protagonist is heterosexual; if the gender of a body is not indicated, will be assumed by the reader that it is male; if a disability is not indicated, it will be assumed by the reader that the protagonist is able bodied, just as a set of examples.

One can often overlook unmarked categories. Whiteness forms an unmarked category not commonly visible to the powerful, as they often fall within this category. The unmarked category becomes the norm, with the other categories relegated to deviant status. Social groups can apply this view of power to race, gender, and disability without modification: the able body is the neutral body; the man is the normal status.

Representation/Counterpower szerkesztés

Gilles Deleuze, a French theorist, compared voting for political representation with being taken hostage. A representational government assumes that people can be divided into categories with distinct shared interests. The representative is regarded as embodying the interests of the group. Many social movements have been successful in gaining access to governments: the working class, women, young people and ethnic minorities are part of the government in many nation-states. However, there is no government where the government represents the population along the characteristics of the categories.

The problem of finding suitable representatives relates to an individual's membership of different categories at the same time. The only truly representative government for a population is the population itself. These ideas have become popular in social movements for global justice. The logic of government open to all underpins the social forums (such as the World Social Forum) that have developed in contradistinction to the forums of the powerful. These alternative forms are sometimes called counter-power.

Participation/Liberation szerkesztés

This view appears in many projects of social change, but its founder Paulo Freire is largely unknown. Freire assumes that people carry archives of knowledge within them. In particular he rejects the idea that people remain ignorant unless they have learned to communicate using the culture of the powerful. The person is seen as part of a culture circle with its own view of reality, based on the circumstances of everyday living.

Dialogue can bring about social change. Such dialogue directly opposes the monologue of the culture of the powerful. Dialogue expands the understanding of the world rather than teaching a correct understanding. The process of social change starts with action, on which the group then reflects. Commonly, more action of some kind then results...

  • Aldrich, Robert and Wotherspoon, Gary (Eds.) (2001). Who's Who in Contemporary Gay & Lesbian History: From World War II to the Present Day. New York: Routledge. ISBN 041522974X.

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