Kúpcsiga

puhatestű nem

A kúpcsiga (Conus) a csigák (Gastropoda) osztályának Neogastropoda csoportjába, ezen belül a kúpcsigák (Conidae) családjába tartozó nem.[1][2][3]

Infobox info icon.svg
Kúpcsiga
Evolúciós időszak: Eocén - jelen
Conus textile
Rendszertani besorolás
Ország: Állatok (Animalia)
Törzs: Puhatestűek (Mollusca)
Osztály: Csigák (Gastropoda)
Csoport: Caenogastropoda
Csoport: Hypsogastropoda
Csoport: Neogastropoda
Öregcsalád: Conoidea
Család: Kúpcsigák (Conidae)
Alcsalád: Coninae
Nem: Conus
Linnaeus, 1758
Szinonimák
Szinonimák
  • Afonsoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Africonus Petuch, 1975
  • Afroconus Petuch, 1975
  • Ammirales Schepman, 1913
  • Arubaconus Petuch, 2013: synonym of Conus (Ductoconus)
  • Asperi Schepman, 1913
  • Asprella Schaufuss, 1869
  • Atlanticonus Petuch & Sargent, 2012
  • Attenuiconus Petuch, 2013
  • Austroconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Bermudaconus Petuch, 2013
  • Brasiliconus Petuch, 2013
  • Calamiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Lividiconus)
  • Calibanus da Motta, 1991
  • Cariboconus Petuch, 2003
  • Chelyconus Mörch, 1842
  • Cleobula 1930
  • Conasprelloides Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Continuconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Klemaeconus)
  • Conus (Afonsoconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Asprella) Schaufuss, 1869 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Atlanticonus) Petuch & Sargent, 2012 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Attenuiconus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Austroconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2009 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Bermudaconus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Brasiliconus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Calibanus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Chelyconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Conus) Linnaeus, 1758 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Cylinder) Montfort, 1810 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Darioconus) Iredale, 1930 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Dauciconus) Cotton, 1945 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Ductoconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Lautoconus) Monterosato, 1923 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Pyruconus) Olsson, 1967 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Sciteconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Splinoconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Spuriconus) Petuch, 2003 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Stephanoconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Cornutoconus Suzuki, 1972: synonym of Conus (Taranteconus)
  • Coronaxis Swainson, 1840
  • Cucullus Röding, 1798
  • Cylinder Montfort, 1810
  • Cylindrella Swainson, 1840 (Invalid: junior homonym of Cylindrella Pfeiffer, 1840 [Gastropoda, Urocoptidae] and placed on the Official Index by ICZN Opinion 1030; Asprella is a replacement name)
  • Cylindrus Deshayes, 1824
  • Darioconus Iredale, 1930
  • Dauciconus Cotton, 1945
  • Dendroconus Swainson, 1840
  • Ductoconus da Motta, 1991
  • Dyraspis Iredale, 1949: synonym of synonym of Conus (Virroconus)
  • Elisaconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Elisaconus)
  • Embrikena Iredale, 1937
  • Endemoconus Iredale, 1931
  • Eremiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Eremiconus)
  • Erythroconus da Motta, 1991
  • Eugeniconus da Motta, 1991
  • Floraconus Iredale, 1930
  • Fraterconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Fraterconus)
  • Fulgiconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Phasmoconus)
  • Gastridium Mödeer, 1793
  • Genuanoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Kalloconus)
  • Gladioconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Gradiconus da Motta, 1991
  • Graphiconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Phasmoconus)
  • Harmoniconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Harmoniconus)
  • Hermes Montfort, 1810
  • Heroconus da Motta, 1991
  • Isoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Kalloconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Kalloconus)
  • Kellyconus Petuch, 2013: synonym of Conus (Kellyconus)
  • Kenyonia Brazier, 1896: synonym of Conus (Kenyonia)
  • Kermasprella Powell, 1958
  • Ketyconus da Motta, 1991
  • Kioconus da Motta, 1991
  • KlemaeconusTucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Klemaeconus)
  • Kurodaconus Shikama & Habe, 1968: synonym of Conus (Turriconus)
  • Lamniconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Lamniconus)
  • Lautoconus Monterosato, 1923
  • Leporiconus Iredale, 1930
  • Leptoconus Swainson, 1840
  • Lilliconus Raybaudi Massilia, 1994
  • Lindaconus Petuch, 2002: synonym of Conus (Lindaconus)
  • Lithoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Lividoconus Wils, 1970: synonym of Conus (Lividoconus)
  • Lizaconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Profundiconus)
  • Magelliconus da Motta, 1991
  • Mamiconus Cotton & Godfrey, 1932
  • Miliariconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Virroconus)
  • Mitraconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Turriconus)
  • Monteiroconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Monteiroconus)
  • Nataliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Leptoconus)
  • Nimboconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Phasmoconus)
  • Nitidoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Ongoconus da Motta, 1991
  • Papyriconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Papyriconus)
  • Phasmoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Pionoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Plicaustraconus Moolenbeek, 2008: synonym of Conus (Plicaustraconus)
  • Poremskiconus Petuch, 2013
  • Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956
  • Protoconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Tenorioconus)
  • Protostrioconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Gastridium)
  • Pseudohermes Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Virgiconus)
  • Pseudolilliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Pseudolilliconus)
  • Pseudonoduloconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Pseudonoduloconus)
  • Pseudopterygia Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Pseudopterygia)
  • Puncticulis Swainson, 1840: synonym of Conus (Puncticulis)
  • Purpuriconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Dauciconus)
  • Pyruconus Olsson, 1967: synonym of Conus (Pyruconus)
  • Quasiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Quasiconus)
  • Regiconus Iredale, 1930: synonym of Conus (Darioconus)
  • Rhizoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Rhombiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Stephanoconus)
  • Rhombus Montfort, 1810: synonym of Conus (Rhombiconus)
  • Rolaniconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Strategoconus)
  • Rollus Montfort, 1810: synonym of Conus (Gastridium)
  • Rubroconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Rubroconus)
  • Sandericonus Petuch, 2013: synonym of Conus (Sandericonus)
  • Sciteconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Sciteconus)
  • Seminoleconus Petuch, 2003: synonym of Conus (Protoconus)
  • Socioconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Pionoconus)
  • Splinoconus da Motta, 1991
  • Spuriconus Petuch, 2003: synonym of Conus (Lindaconus)
  • Stellaconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Splinoconus)
  • Stephanoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Strategoconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Strategoconus)
  • Strioconus Thiele, 1929: synonym of Conus (Pionoconus)
  • Sulciconus Bielz, 1869: synonym of Conus (Asprella)
  • Taranteconus Azuma, 1972: synonym of Conus (Stephanoconus)
  • Tenorioconus Petuch & Drohlshagen, 2011: synonym of Conus (Stephanoconus)
  • Textilia Swainson, 1840
  • Thalassiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013: synonym of Conus (Calibanus)
  • Theliconus Swainson, 1840: synonym of synonym of Conus (Hermes)
  • Thoraconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Fulgiconus)
  • Trovaoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009: synonym of Conus (Kalloconus)
  • Tuckericonus Petuch, 2013: synonym of Conus (Dauciconus)
  • Tuliparia Swainson, 1840
  • Turriconus Shikama & Habe, 1968
  • Utriculus Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Conus (Gastridium)
  • Varioconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Lautoconus)
  • Virgiconus Cotton, 1945
  • Virroconus Iredale, 1930
  • Vituliconus da Motta, 1991: synonym of Conus (Strategoconus)
Hivatkozások
Wikifajok

A Wikifajok tartalmaz Kúpcsiga témájú rendszertani információt.

Commons

A Wikimédia Commons tartalmaz Kúpcsiga témájú kategóriát.

TudnivalókSzerkesztés

A kúpcsigafajok maradványai már az eocén korból is előkerültek.[4] Manapság többségük a trópusi vizekben élnek, főleg ott ahol az Indiai- és a Csendes-óceánok találkoznak. Azonban néhányuk a hidegebb, mérsékelt övi vizekhez alkalmazkodott; például: a Dél-afrikai Köztársaság tengervizéhez,[5][6] a Földközi-tengerhez,[7] vagy Kalifornia partvidékéhez.[8]

Többségük a korallszirtek környékén levő kavicsos és törmelékes tengerfenéken élnek, viszont vannak árapálytérségi fajok is. Mindegyikük ragadozó életmódot folytat. Táplálékaik fajtól függően változó; lehetnek: férgek, más családbeli csigák vagy kisebb halak. Akár egymásra is vadászhatnak. A veszélyesebb és gyorsabb zsákmányállatokat, mint például a halakat egy méreggel ellátott szigonyszerű nyúlvánnyal bénítják meg.

Amint nevük is mutatja, csigaházuk kúp alakú. Annak mérete és színezete fajtól függően igen változó. A színezet fajon belül is változatos lehet.[9] A legnagyobb faj 23 centiméter hosszú. A nagyobb fajok mérge az emberre nézve halálos. Az orvostudomány kísérletezik e mérgeken.[10][11]

RendszerezésSzerkesztés

A több mint 600 faj, az alábbi 73 alnembe van összefoglalva:

  • Conus (Africonus)
  • Conus (Artemidiconus)
  • Conus (Asprella)
  • Conus (Calibanus)
  • Conus (Chelyconus)
  • Conus (Conasprella)
  • Conus (Conus)
  • Conus (Cornutoconus)
  • Conus (Cucullus)
  • Conus (Cylinder)
  • Conus (Cylindrus)
  • Conus (Darioconus)
  • Conus (Dauciconus)
  • Conus (Dendroconus)
  • Conus (Ductoconus)
  • Conus (Dyraspis)
  • Conus (Embrikena)
  • Conus (Endemoconus)
  • Conus (Erythroconus)
  • Conus (Eugeniconus)
  • Conus (Floraconus)
  • Conus (Fulgiconus)
  • Conus (Fumiconus)
  • Conus (Fusiconus)
  • Conus (Gastridium)
  • Conus (Gradiconus)
  • Conus (Graphiconus)
  • Conus (Harmoniconus)
  • Conus (Hermes)
  • Conus (Kalloconus)
  • Conus (Kenyonia)
  • Conus (Kermasprella)
  • Conus (Ketyconus)
  • Conus (Kioconus)
  • Conus (Kurodaconus)
  • Conus (Lamniconus)
  • Conus (Lautoconus)
  • Conus (Leporiconus)
  • Conus (Leptoconus)
  • Conus (Lilliconus)
  • Conus (Lithoconus)
  • Conus (Lividiconus)
  • Conus (Lizaconus)
  • Conus (Magelliconus)
  • Conus (Mamiconus)
  • Conus (Monteiroconus)
  • Conus (Ongoconus)
  • Conus (Phasmoconus)
  • Conus (Pionoconus)
  • Conus (Profundiconus)
  • Conus (Protoconus)
  • Conus (Puncticulus)
  • Conus (Purpuriconus)
  • Conus (Pyruconus)
  • Conus (Regiconus)
  • Conus (Rhizoconus)
  • Conus (Rhombus)
  • Conus (Sciteconus)
  • Conus (Socioconus)
  • Conus (Splinoconus)
  • Conus (Stephanoconus)
  • Conus (Strategoconus)
  • Conus (Strioconus)
  • Conus (Taranteconus)
  • Conus (Tesselliconus)
  • Conus (Textilia)
  • Conus (Thoraconus)
  • Conus (Tuliparia)
  • Conus (Turriconus)
  • Conus (Varioconus)
  • Conus (Virgiconus)
  • Conus (Virroconus)
  • Conus (Ximeniconus)

JegyzetekSzerkesztés

  1. Carolus Linnaeus|Linnaeus C. (1758). Systema Naturae, ed. 10, 712; 1767, ed. 12, 1165.
  2. Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2015). Conus Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137813 on 2015-03-29
  3. Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23
  4. (csehül) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R. (1996). Základy zoopaleontologie. Olomouc, 264 pp., ISBN 80-7067-599-3.
  5. Tenorio, M. J. & Monteiro, A. J. (2008). The Family Conidae. The South African species of Conus. In: Poppe, G. T. & Groh, K. (eds): A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 47 pp., 60 pls.
  6. Branch, G.M. Griffiths, C.L. Branch, M.L. Beckley, L.E.. Two oceans : a guide to the marine life of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Nature (2010). ISBN 978-1-77007-772-0 
  7. Monteiro, A. J., Tenorio, M. J. & Poppe, G. T. (2004). The Family Conidae. The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G. T. & Groh, K. (eds): A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 102 pp., 164 pls.
  8. Tenorio, M. J., Tucker, J. K. & Chaney, H. W. (2012). The Families Conilithidae and Conidae. The Cones of the Eastern Pacific. In: Poppe, G. T. & Groh, K. (eds): A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 112 pp., 88 pls.
  9. Hendricks, J. R. (2015. május 25.). „Glowing Seashells: Diversity of Fossilized Coloration Patterns on Coral Reef-Associated Cone Snail (Gastropoda: Conidae) Shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic”. PLOS ONE, Kiadó: PLOS. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120924.  
  10. Olivera BM, Teichert RW (2007). „Diversity of the neurotoxic Conus peptides: a model for concerted pharmacological discovery”. Molecular Interventions 7 (5), 251–60. o. DOI:10.1124/mi.7.5.7. PMID 17932414.  
  11. Roger Van Oosten: Nature's brew. Quest online, 2008. szeptember 1.

ForrásokSzerkesztés

  • Conus Linnaeus, 1758 WoRMS
  • Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies, 8th Edition, Edited by Neal E Flomenbaum, Lewis R Goldfrank, Robert S Hoffman, Mary Ann Howland, Neal A Lewin, and Lewis S Nelson. Published by McGraw-Hill, New York, ISBN 978-0-07-143763-9
  • Gmelin, J. F. 1791. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. Editio decima tertia. Systema Naturae, 13th ed., vol. 1(6): 3021-3910. Lipsiae.
  • Bruguière, [J.-G.] 1792. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle des Vers. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Histoire Naturelle des Vers 1: 345-757. Panckoucke: Paris.
  • Sowerby, G. B., II. 1833. Conus. Conchological Illustrations pls. 36-37
  • (franciául) A. Chevalier Bernardi|Bernardi A. C. (1858). Monographie du genre Conus.
  • Reeve, L. 1844. Monograph of the genus Conus. Conchologia Iconica 1: pls. 40-47
  • Kiener, L. C. 1845. Genre Cone. (Conus, Lin.). Spécies Général et Iconographie des Coquilles Vivantes 2: pls. 1-111
  • Clench, W. J. 1942. The Genus Conus in the Western Atlantic. Johnsonia 1(6): 1-40
  • Van Mol, J. J., B. Tursch and M. Kempf. 1967. Mollusques prosobranches: Les Conidae du Brésil. Étude basée en partie sur les spécimens recueillis par la Calypso. Annales de l'Institut Océanographique 45: 233-254, pls. 5-10
  • Vink, D. L. N. and R. von Cosel. 1985. The Conus cedonulli complex: Historical review, taxonomy and biological observations. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 92: 525-603
  • Petuch, E. J. 1986. New South American gastropods in the genera Conus (Conidae) and Latirus (Fasciolariidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 99: 8-14.
  • Petuch, E. J. 1987. New Caribbean molluscan faunas. [v] + 154 + A1-A4, 29 pls. Coastal Education & Research Foundation: Charlottesville, Virginia
  • Petuch, E. J. 1988. Neogene history of tropical American mollusks. [vi] + 217, 39 pls. Coastal Education & Research Foundation: Charlottesville, Virginia
  • Petuch, E. J. 1990. A new molluscan faunule from the Caribbean coast of Panama. Nautilus 104: 57-70
  • Petuch, E. J. 1992. Molluscan discoveries from the tropical Western Atlantic region. Part II. New species of Conus from the Bahamas Platform, Central American and northern South American coasts, and the Lesser Antilles. La Conchiglia 24(265): 10-15.
  • Petuch, E. J. 2000. A review of the conid subgenus Purpuriconus da Motta, 1991, with the descriptions of two new Bahamian species. Ruthenica 10: 81-87
  • Petuch, E. J. 2004. Cenozoic Seas. xvi + 308 pp. CRC Press: Boca Raton
  • Tenorio, M. J., Tucker, J. K. & Chaney, H. W. (2012). The Families Conilithidae and Conidae. The Cones of the Eastern Pacific. In: Poppe G.T. & Groh K. (eds): A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 112 pp., 88 pls.
  • Coltro, J., Jr. 2004. New species of Conidae from northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Strombus 11: 1-16
  • García, E. F. 2006. Conus sauros, a new Conus species (Gastropoda: Conidae) from the Gulf of Mexico. Novapex 7: 71-76
  • Franklin JB, Subramanian KA, Fernando SA, & Krishnan KS 2009. Diversity and Distribution of Conidae from the Tamil Nadu Coast of India (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Conidae). Zootaxa 2250: 63 pp.
  • J. Benjamin Franklin, S. Antony Fernando, B. A. Chalke, K. S. Krishnan 2007. Radular morphology of Conus (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Conidae) from India. Molluscan Research 27(3): 111–122. ISSN 1323-5818
  • Peters H, O'Leary BC, Hawkins JP, Carpenter KE, Roberts CM (2013) Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus. PLoS ONE 8(12): e83353. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083353
  • Linnaeus: Systema Naturae, 10th ed. (1758).

FordításSzerkesztés

  • Ez a szócikk részben vagy egészben a Conus című angol Wikipédia-szócikk ezen változatának fordításán alapul. Az eredeti cikk szerkesztőit annak laptörténete sorolja fel.

További információkSzerkesztés